Sunday, 18 August 2019, 10:51 PM
Site: e-Learning for Healthcare Professionals
Course: e-Learning for Healthcare Professionals (e-Learning for Healthcare Professionals)
Glossary: Global Glossary: Pharmacy Informatics
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Access Control

The control of user privileges (e.g. read, update) with respect to information, an application or a database.

COACH

Active clinical surveillance

Surveillance system that processes data through a knowledge base and alerts a health care practitioner when criteria for clinical intervention are met. (See also Passive surveillance system)

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.

Adopters of change

Adopters of change are grouped into five categories: Innovators (venturesome); Early adopters (respectable); Early majority (deliberate); Late majority (skeptical); Laggards (traditional).

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes

Adoption

The acceptance of technological innovation in everyday practice regardless of the degree of infusion.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes

Advocate

A person who helps build a case for change by drawing support from within the industry, by selling the idea of change. Advocates do not need to be people in authority or in the organization. The key attribute of an advocate is having the trust and confidence of potential sponsors and being able to influence the sponsor’s decision.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes

Affiliate

Employee, volunteer, information manager, student and person contracted to provide services for custodians.

 

Alberta Health Information Act

Aggregate data

Data averaged or grouped into ranges (e.g. five- or ten-year age groups).

 

COACH

Alert

An urgent notice generated by a computerized clinical decision support system (CDSS). These are usually in the form of a just-in-time, patient-specific message directed to one or more clinicians. It may be a warning regarding a clinician’s documented action (or lack thereof) or a documented decision. Or it may be an urgent informational notification of a new clinical condition, circumstance, or change in patient status that requires immediate attention. Some alerts require a response before the clinician can continue.

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 

Alert fatigue

A state of irritability, exhaustion, or bewilderment triggered in clinicians who have been exposed to too many alerts, or alerts with a perceived history of irrelevance, which cause the user to ignore some or all of the alerts, thereby reducing the safety benefit of the decision support system.

 

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 

Algorithm

A process for carrying out a complex task broken down into simple decision and action steps. Often assists the requirements analysis process carried out before programming.

Anonymize

The transformation of personally identifiable information into a state in which it cannot be reidentified.

 

COACH

Asynchronous communication

Communication that does not occur in real time; the message is sent and received at a later time (e.g., e-mail, postal mail).

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.

Attenuation

In telecommunication systems, a weakening of an electrical signal over time or distance.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.

Attribute

A characteristic of an entity in a database (e.g., patient attributes such as drug allergies, date of birth, etc.). 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.

Audit

An independent examination of information systems and processes to detect unauthorized activities.

 

COACH

Audit Log / Access Audit / Audit Report

A chronological listing of access-to-information resources.  Items that are typically logged include user identity, time of access, resources that were accessed, device used to access the information and modifications that were made.

 

COACH

Authentication

Establishes the validity of a claimed identity and provides protection against fraudulent transactions. It could include 2-factor authentication, 3-factor authentication, authentication function, digital signature, personal identification number, token, etc.

Canada Health Infoway, EHRS Blueprint Version 2

Provision of assurance of the claimed identity of an entity.

 (ISO 7498-2) via COACH

Authorization

The permission to perform certain operations or use certain methods or services.

Canada Health Infoway, EHRS Blueprint.

Authorization (aka roles-based authorization)

1: Process of determining what activities are permitted, usually in the context of authentication.

2: The permission to perform certain operations or use certain methods or services.

 

Canada Health Infoway, EHRS Blueprint Version 2

Automated dispensing cabinets

Devices that maintain medication inventory via an audit trail of receiving and dispersal activity, automate charging of medication products as they are released for use by a patient, and prompt for inventory replacements according to usage and par levels. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.

Automation

Any technology, machine or device linked to or controlled by a computer and used to do work. Automation is designed to streamline and improve the accuracy and efficiency of the medication use process.

 

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 

B

Bandwidth

A measure of the ability to carry data (bits) over time (a second). 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.

Bar Code Medication Administration (BCMA)

An inpatient clinical decision support system to assist caregivers with the five rights of medication administration (right patient, right drug, right dose, right route and right time). BCMA systems provide warnings if any of the five rights are compromised, and many BCMA systems require the nurse to enter an override reason if he/she chooses to proceed. In addition, BCMA systems promote right documentation (some hospitals call this the sixth right of medication administration).

 

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 

Bar-coding at the Point of Care (BPOC)

A process in which the patient and various patient therapies are documented with a bar code scanner at the bedside.

 

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 

Barcode

A series of vertical lines and spaces of varying widths that encode data to be scanned and decoded through a computer.

 

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 

Benefits evaluation

An assessment of the impact, benefit or change resulting from participation in an initiative, program or effort.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes

Benefits realization

Benefits realization is the process of achieving objectives, which generally includes three components: (1) Articulation of the benefits; (2) Identification of key assumptions or conditions, and development of action plans to address them; and (3) Measurement against these objectives.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes

Best Possible Medication Discharge Plan

A comprehensive plan that must account for new medications started in the hospital, new medications started on discharge, preadmission and hospital medications held during the hospital stay, and automatic hospital formulary substitutions, as well as discontinued, adjusted, and unchanged preadmission drugs.

Canadian Patient Safety Institute and ISMP Canada (2017). Medication Reconciliation in Acute Care Getting Started Kit, version 4

Best Possible Medication History

Consists of a systematic process of interviewing the patient/family and reviewing at least one other reliable source of information to obtain and verify all of a patient’s medication use (prescribed and non-prescribed). 

Canadian Patient Safety Institute and ISMP Canada (2017). Medication Reconciliation in Acute Care Getting Started Kit, version 4

Bioinformatics

Application of informatics to cellular and molecular biology. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.

Biomedical and health informatics

Optimal use of information, often aided by the use of technology, to improve individual health, health care, public health, and biomedical research. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.

Breach of Information Security

An action by an authorized or unauthorized user that results in a negative impact, or causes interruption, disclosure, unauthorized access, modification, destruction or denial of service.  An information security breach is sometimes referred to as an information security incident.

 

COACH

Broadcast media

Telecommunication media that include infrared, radio, microwave, cellular, and satellite.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.

C

Carousel cabinet

A type of automated dispensing cabinet in which medications are store in shelves that are attached to a carousel; the carousel can cycle through the shelving and deliver the appropriate shelve(s) to the user.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.

Case report/case series

Descriptive reports on the treatment of individual patients. Case reports/series do not use control groups.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.

Case-control study

A medical research study that evaluates patients with a specific condition and compares them with people who do not have the condition (controls).

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.

Change

Change involves a shift in action or thinking. It is about the events or circumstances that impact and affect the organization. These could include a new leader, changes in government policy, technology, stakeholder expectations, etc. Thus, change is typically outcome or results focused, in that organizational change is usually a solution to someone’s perception of a problem or opportunity.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes

Checklist

A type of clinical decision tool: A form listing one or more items of patient data  to be collected before, during or after an encounter; can be paper or computer based.

CIHI

Canadian Institute for Health Information

Circle of Care

The persons participating in—and the activities related—to the provision of health care to the individual who is the subject of the personal health information and includes necessarily incidental activities such as laboratory work and professional consultation.

Personal Health Information Act, SNL 2008, c P-7.01. Consolidated Statutes of Newfoundland and Labrador

An informal designation representing the list of care providers who have a relationship with a patient.

COACH

Client Registry

A system which coordinates client identification across multiple systems by collecting and storing IDs and person-identifying demographic information from source system (tracks new persons and changes to exisitng persons).

Canada Health Infoway, EHR Bueprint Version 2, 2006

An electronic registry of demographic and administrative information related to individuals who have received health care in a province or territory that enables accurate identification of individuals in the EHR by linking person-specific information from separate clinical information sysems to the correct individual.

Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Healh Information

Clinical coding system (controlled vocabulary)

A limited list of preferred terms from which the user can draw one or more to express a concept such as patient data, a disease or drug name, etc. An alphanumeric code corresponding to the term is then stored by the computer. This approach makes it easier for a computer to analyse data than the use of free text words or phrases. Examples of clinical coding systems include SNOMED-CT (divergent codes used to capture patient data), MeSH (terms used to index biomedical literature) and ICD-10 (convergent codes for international comparisons). Clinical coding systems play a key role in epidemiological studies and health service research, from the use of MeSH terms to conduct literature searches for systematic reviews to numerous studies which use ICD codes to classify and compare diseases. To prevent information loss, it is vital that the terms and codes are never changed or dropped, only added to. Obsolete terms can be marked as such to deter inappropriate use. Continuing maintenance is needed to incorporate new terms and codes for new concepts and new synonyms as they arise.

Clinical data repository (CDR)

A large database that houses clinical data from multiple information systems within an organization and serves as a foundational component of electronic medical records.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.

Clinical Decision Support

Providing clinicians or patients with clinical knowledge and patient-related information, intelligently filtered or presented at appropriate times, to enhance patient care. Could range from simple facts to best practices for managing patients with specific disease states, new medical knowledge from clinical research and other types of information.

Dimitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 

 

Clinical Decision Support System

A system (computer or otherwise) intended to provider CDS to clinicians, caregivers and healthcare consumers. Automated CDSS are usually just-in-time, point-of-care messages in the form of an alert, reminder, recommendation, or informational notification regarding a patient. Automated CDS systems typically include a knowledge base (which contains stored facts and some method of algorithmic logic), and event monitor (to detect data entry or the storage of data from a laboratory or other system), and a communication system to the end user (unidirectional or bidirectional).

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 

Used when referring to a type of system that assists HCPs in making medical decisions. These types of systems typically require input of patient-specific clinical variables and as a result provide patient-specific recommendations.
 
Health Level Seven (from NAPRA)

Clinical decision tool

Any mechanical, paper or electronic aid that collects data from an individual patient to generate output that aids clinical decisions during the doctor-patient encounter. Examples include decision support systems, paper or computer reminders and checklists, which are potentially useful tools in public health informatics, as well as other branches of health informatics.

 

Liu JLY, Wyatt JC, Altman DG. Exploring the definition and scope of clinical decision tools: focus on the problem, not the solution. Working paper, Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Oxford University, 2002.

Clinical informatician

Clinically trained individuals whose expertise is applied at the intersection of information technology and health care, and whose focus is on successful adoption and use of health information technology. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.

Clinical informatics

The use of health informatics methods to aid management of patients, employing an interdisciplinary approach, including the clinical and information sciences. 

 

Shortliffe EH, Perreault LE, Wiederhold G, Fagan K. Glossary. In: Medical Informatics-- Computer Applications in Health Care and Biomedicine. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2001:749-820.

Clinical information

Organised patient data or clinical knowledge used to make clinical decisions (adapted from Shortliffe et al); may also include directory information. Many activities in public health and epidemiology (e.g. surveillance systems, cohort studies to assess the effects of a risk factor of disease and clinical trials to estimate efficacies of new treatments) involve the organization of such data (e.g. case report forms for individual patients) into useable information (e.g. incidence of notifiable cases of disease from surveillance programmes and summary evidence from cohort studies or clinical trials, expressed as odds ratios for certain harmful and beneficial outcomes). See also: information.

 

Shortliffe EH, Perreault LE, Wiederhold G, Fagan K. Glossary. In: Medical Informatics-- Computer Applications in Health Care and Biomedicine. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2001:749-820.

COACH

Canada's Health Informatics Association