Wednesday, 11 December 2019, 5:36 AM
Site: e-Learning for Healthcare Professionals
Course: e-Learning for Healthcare Professionals (e-Learning for Healthcare Professionals)
Glossary: Global Glossary: Pharmacy Informatics
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Access Control

The control of user privileges (e.g. read, update) with respect to information, an application or a database.

COACH

Active clinical surveillance

Surveillance system that processes data through a knowledge base and alerts a health care practitioner when criteria for clinical intervention are met. (See also Passive surveillance system)

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.

Adopters of change

Adopters of change are grouped into five categories: Innovators (venturesome); Early adopters (respectable); Early majority (deliberate); Late majority (skeptical); Laggards (traditional).

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes

Adoption

The acceptance of technological innovation in everyday practice regardless of the degree of infusion.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes

Advocate

A person who helps build a case for change by drawing support from within the industry, by selling the idea of change. Advocates do not need to be people in authority or in the organization. The key attribute of an advocate is having the trust and confidence of potential sponsors and being able to influence the sponsor’s decision.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes

Affiliate

Employee, volunteer, information manager, student and person contracted to provide services for custodians.

 

Alberta Health Information Act

Aggregate data

Data averaged or grouped into ranges (e.g. five- or ten-year age groups).

 

COACH

Alert

An urgent notice generated by a computerized clinical decision support system (CDSS). These are usually in the form of a just-in-time, patient-specific message directed to one or more clinicians. It may be a warning regarding a clinician’s documented action (or lack thereof) or a documented decision. Or it may be an urgent informational notification of a new clinical condition, circumstance, or change in patient status that requires immediate attention. Some alerts require a response before the clinician can continue.

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 

Alert fatigue

A state of irritability, exhaustion, or bewilderment triggered in clinicians who have been exposed to too many alerts, or alerts with a perceived history of irrelevance, which cause the user to ignore some or all of the alerts, thereby reducing the safety benefit of the decision support system.

 

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 

Algorithm

A process for carrying out a complex task broken down into simple decision and action steps. Often assists the requirements analysis process carried out before programming.

Anonymize

The transformation of personally identifiable information into a state in which it cannot be reidentified.

 

COACH

Asynchronous communication

Communication that does not occur in real time; the message is sent and received at a later time (e.g., e-mail, postal mail).

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.

Attenuation

In telecommunication systems, a weakening of an electrical signal over time or distance.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.

Attribute

A characteristic of an entity in a database (e.g., patient attributes such as drug allergies, date of birth, etc.). 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.

Audit

An independent examination of information systems and processes to detect unauthorized activities.

 

COACH

Audit Log / Access Audit / Audit Report

A chronological listing of access-to-information resources.  Items that are typically logged include user identity, time of access, resources that were accessed, device used to access the information and modifications that were made.

 

COACH

Authentication

Establishes the validity of a claimed identity and provides protection against fraudulent transactions. It could include 2-factor authentication, 3-factor authentication, authentication function, digital signature, personal identification number, token, etc.

Canada Health Infoway, EHRS Blueprint Version 2

Provision of assurance of the claimed identity of an entity.

 (ISO 7498-2) via COACH

Authorization

The permission to perform certain operations or use certain methods or services.

Canada Health Infoway, EHRS Blueprint.

Authorization (aka roles-based authorization)

1: Process of determining what activities are permitted, usually in the context of authentication.

2: The permission to perform certain operations or use certain methods or services.

 

Canada Health Infoway, EHRS Blueprint Version 2

Automated dispensing cabinets

Devices that maintain medication inventory via an audit trail of receiving and dispersal activity, automate charging of medication products as they are released for use by a patient, and prompt for inventory replacements according to usage and par levels. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.

Automation

Any technology, machine or device linked to or controlled by a computer and used to do work. Automation is designed to streamline and improve the accuracy and efficiency of the medication use process.

 

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009.