Global Glossary: Pharmacy Informatics


One of our goals of the project was to create a glossary. Throughout the e-Resource, terms have been "enabled". By choosing a highlighted term, a definition will appear. We welcome any suggestions you have for items to include. You may also comment below terms as they appear.

Browse the glossary using this index

Special | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ALL

Page:  1  2  3  4  (Next)
  ALL

A

Access Control

The control of user privileges (e.g. read, update) with respect to information, an application or a database.

COACH


Active clinical surveillance

Surveillance system that processes data through a knowledge base and alerts a health care practitioner when criteria for clinical intervention are met. (See also Passive surveillance system)

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Adopters of change

Adopters of change are grouped into five categories: Innovators (venturesome); Early adopters (respectable); Early majority (deliberate); Late majority (skeptical); Laggards (traditional).

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Adoption

The acceptance of technological innovation in everyday practice regardless of the degree of infusion.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Advocate

A person who helps build a case for change by drawing support from within the industry, by selling the idea of change. Advocates do not need to be people in authority or in the organization. The key attribute of an advocate is having the trust and confidence of potential sponsors and being able to influence the sponsor’s decision.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Affiliate

Employee, volunteer, information manager, student and person contracted to provide services for custodians.

 

Alberta Health Information Act


Aggregate data

Data averaged or grouped into ranges (e.g. five- or ten-year age groups).

 

COACH


Alert

An urgent notice generated by a computerized clinical decision support system (CDSS). These are usually in the form of a just-in-time, patient-specific message directed to one or more clinicians. It may be a warning regarding a clinician’s documented action (or lack thereof) or a documented decision. Or it may be an urgent informational notification of a new clinical condition, circumstance, or change in patient status that requires immediate attention. Some alerts require a response before the clinician can continue.

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 


Alert fatigue

A state of irritability, exhaustion, or bewilderment triggered in clinicians who have been exposed to too many alerts, or alerts with a perceived history of irrelevance, which cause the user to ignore some or all of the alerts, thereby reducing the safety benefit of the decision support system.

 

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 


Algorithm

A process for carrying out a complex task broken down into simple decision and action steps. Often assists the requirements analysis process carried out before programming.


Anonymize

The transformation of personally identifiable information into a state in which it cannot be reidentified.

 

COACH


Asynchronous communication

Communication that does not occur in real time; the message is sent and received at a later time (e.g., e-mail, postal mail).

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Attenuation

In telecommunication systems, a weakening of an electrical signal over time or distance.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Attribute

A characteristic of an entity in a database (e.g., patient attributes such as drug allergies, date of birth, etc.). 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Audit

An independent examination of information systems and processes to detect unauthorized activities.

 

COACH


Audit Log / Access Audit / Audit Report

A chronological listing of access-to-information resources.  Items that are typically logged include user identity, time of access, resources that were accessed, device used to access the information and modifications that were made.

 

COACH


Authentication

Establishes the validity of a claimed identity and provides protection against fraudulent transactions. It could include 2-factor authentication, 3-factor authentication, authentication function, digital signature, personal identification number, token, etc.

Canada Health Infoway, EHRS Blueprint Version 2

Provision of assurance of the claimed identity of an entity.

 (ISO 7498-2) via COACH


Authorization

The permission to perform certain operations or use certain methods or services.

Canada Health Infoway, EHRS Blueprint.


Authorization (aka roles-based authorization)

1: Process of determining what activities are permitted, usually in the context of authentication.

2: The permission to perform certain operations or use certain methods or services.

 

Canada Health Infoway, EHRS Blueprint Version 2


Automated dispensing cabinets

Devices that maintain medication inventory via an audit trail of receiving and dispersal activity, automate charging of medication products as they are released for use by a patient, and prompt for inventory replacements according to usage and par levels. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Automation

Any technology, machine or device linked to or controlled by a computer and used to do work. Automation is designed to streamline and improve the accuracy and efficiency of the medication use process.

 

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 


B

Bandwidth

A measure of the ability to carry data (bits) over time (a second). 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Bar Code Medication Administration (BCMA)

An inpatient clinical decision support system to assist caregivers with the five rights of medication administration (right patient, right drug, right dose, right route and right time). BCMA systems provide warnings if any of the five rights are compromised, and many BCMA systems require the nurse to enter an override reason if he/she chooses to proceed. In addition, BCMA systems promote right documentation (some hospitals call this the sixth right of medication administration).

 

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 


Bar-coding at the Point of Care (BPOC)

A process in which the patient and various patient therapies are documented with a bar code scanner at the bedside.

 

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 


Barcode

A series of vertical lines and spaces of varying widths that encode data to be scanned and decoded through a computer.

 

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 


Benefits evaluation

An assessment of the impact, benefit or change resulting from participation in an initiative, program or effort.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Benefits realization

Benefits realization is the process of achieving objectives, which generally includes three components: (1) Articulation of the benefits; (2) Identification of key assumptions or conditions, and development of action plans to address them; and (3) Measurement against these objectives.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Best Possible Medication Discharge Plan

A comprehensive plan that must account for new medications started in the hospital, new medications started on discharge, preadmission and hospital medications held during the hospital stay, and automatic hospital formulary substitutions, as well as discontinued, adjusted, and unchanged preadmission drugs.

Canadian Patient Safety Institute and ISMP Canada (2017). Medication Reconciliation in Acute Care Getting Started Kit, version 4


Best Possible Medication History

Consists of a systematic process of interviewing the patient/family and reviewing at least one other reliable source of information to obtain and verify all of a patient’s medication use (prescribed and non-prescribed). 

Canadian Patient Safety Institute and ISMP Canada (2017). Medication Reconciliation in Acute Care Getting Started Kit, version 4


Bioinformatics

Application of informatics to cellular and molecular biology. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Biomedical and health informatics

Optimal use of information, often aided by the use of technology, to improve individual health, health care, public health, and biomedical research. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Breach of Information Security

An action by an authorized or unauthorized user that results in a negative impact, or causes interruption, disclosure, unauthorized access, modification, destruction or denial of service.  An information security breach is sometimes referred to as an information security incident.

 

COACH


Broadcast media

Telecommunication media that include infrared, radio, microwave, cellular, and satellite.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


C

Carousel cabinet

A type of automated dispensing cabinet in which medications are store in shelves that are attached to a carousel; the carousel can cycle through the shelving and deliver the appropriate shelve(s) to the user.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Case report/case series

Descriptive reports on the treatment of individual patients. Case reports/series do not use control groups.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Case-control study

A medical research study that evaluates patients with a specific condition and compares them with people who do not have the condition (controls).

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Change

Change involves a shift in action or thinking. It is about the events or circumstances that impact and affect the organization. These could include a new leader, changes in government policy, technology, stakeholder expectations, etc. Thus, change is typically outcome or results focused, in that organizational change is usually a solution to someone’s perception of a problem or opportunity.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Checklist

A type of clinical decision tool: A form listing one or more items of patient data  to be collected before, during or after an encounter; can be paper or computer based.


CIHI

Canadian Institute for Health Information

Circle of Care

The persons participating in—and the activities related—to the provision of health care to the individual who is the subject of the personal health information and includes necessarily incidental activities such as laboratory work and professional consultation.

Personal Health Information Act, SNL 2008, c P-7.01. Consolidated Statutes of Newfoundland and Labrador

An informal designation representing the list of care providers who have a relationship with a patient.

COACH


Client Registry

A system which coordinates client identification across multiple systems by collecting and storing IDs and person-identifying demographic information from source system (tracks new persons and changes to exisitng persons).

Canada Health Infoway, EHR Bueprint Version 2, 2006

An electronic registry of demographic and administrative information related to individuals who have received health care in a province or territory that enables accurate identification of individuals in the EHR by linking person-specific information from separate clinical information sysems to the correct individual.

Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Healh Information


Clinical coding system (controlled vocabulary)

A limited list of preferred terms from which the user can draw one or more to express a concept such as patient data, a disease or drug name, etc. An alphanumeric code corresponding to the term is then stored by the computer. This approach makes it easier for a computer to analyse data than the use of free text words or phrases. Examples of clinical coding systems include SNOMED-CT (divergent codes used to capture patient data), MeSH (terms used to index biomedical literature) and ICD-10 (convergent codes for international comparisons). Clinical coding systems play a key role in epidemiological studies and health service research, from the use of MeSH terms to conduct literature searches for systematic reviews to numerous studies which use ICD codes to classify and compare diseases. To prevent information loss, it is vital that the terms and codes are never changed or dropped, only added to. Obsolete terms can be marked as such to deter inappropriate use. Continuing maintenance is needed to incorporate new terms and codes for new concepts and new synonyms as they arise.


Clinical data repository (CDR)

A large database that houses clinical data from multiple information systems within an organization and serves as a foundational component of electronic medical records.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Clinical Decision Support

Providing clinicians or patients with clinical knowledge and patient-related information, intelligently filtered or presented at appropriate times, to enhance patient care. Could range from simple facts to best practices for managing patients with specific disease states, new medical knowledge from clinical research and other types of information.

Dimitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 

 


Clinical Decision Support System

A system (computer or otherwise) intended to provider CDS to clinicians, caregivers and healthcare consumers. Automated CDSS are usually just-in-time, point-of-care messages in the form of an alert, reminder, recommendation, or informational notification regarding a patient. Automated CDS systems typically include a knowledge base (which contains stored facts and some method of algorithmic logic), and event monitor (to detect data entry or the storage of data from a laboratory or other system), and a communication system to the end user (unidirectional or bidirectional).

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 

Used when referring to a type of system that assists HCPs in making medical decisions. These types of systems typically require input of patient-specific clinical variables and as a result provide patient-specific recommendations.
 
Health Level Seven (from NAPRA)


Clinical decision tool

Any mechanical, paper or electronic aid that collects data from an individual patient to generate output that aids clinical decisions during the doctor-patient encounter. Examples include decision support systems, paper or computer reminders and checklists, which are potentially useful tools in public health informatics, as well as other branches of health informatics.

 

Liu JLY, Wyatt JC, Altman DG. Exploring the definition and scope of clinical decision tools: focus on the problem, not the solution. Working paper, Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Oxford University, 2002.


Clinical informatician

Clinically trained individuals whose expertise is applied at the intersection of information technology and health care, and whose focus is on successful adoption and use of health information technology. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Clinical informatics

The use of health informatics methods to aid management of patients, employing an interdisciplinary approach, including the clinical and information sciences. 

 

Shortliffe EH, Perreault LE, Wiederhold G, Fagan K. Glossary. In: Medical Informatics-- Computer Applications in Health Care and Biomedicine. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2001:749-820.


Clinical information

Organised patient data or clinical knowledge used to make clinical decisions (adapted from Shortliffe et al); may also include directory information. Many activities in public health and epidemiology (e.g. surveillance systems, cohort studies to assess the effects of a risk factor of disease and clinical trials to estimate efficacies of new treatments) involve the organization of such data (e.g. case report forms for individual patients) into useable information (e.g. incidence of notifiable cases of disease from surveillance programmes and summary evidence from cohort studies or clinical trials, expressed as odds ratios for certain harmful and beneficial outcomes). See also: information.

 

Shortliffe EH, Perreault LE, Wiederhold G, Fagan K. Glossary. In: Medical Informatics-- Computer Applications in Health Care and Biomedicine. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2001:749-820.


COACH

Canada's Health Informatics Association

Cohort study

A medical research study that evaluates, over a period of time, a large number of patients who have a specific condition or receive a particular treatment and compares them with another group that have all the baseline characteristics but not the condition being studied. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Communication protocol or standard

A set of rules that each networked device or computer follows so that data can be communicated between systems without error or communication-sharing conflicts over a computer network. Network connectivity and control hardware provide the physical connectivity and utilize network control logic to enforce sharing of the network medium in a reliable and safe manner.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Computer networking

Interchange or intercommunication for sharing data, applications, or computerized clinical services between computer systems. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Computerized patient record systems (CPRS)

Clinical enterprise systems comprising software applications that are used in acute patient care (hospital, surgery center, etc.) to manage clinical data in databases. The applications contain online functions that support inpatient workflow and online views of patient information.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE)

Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) / Systèmes informatisés d'entrée d'ordonnances (SIEO)

A Health IT that facilitates the process of electronic order entry. CPOE allows authorized healthcare providers to order medications, tests and procedures, and provide other instructions pertaining to the treatment of patients under their care. These systems generally integrate with pharmacy order entry/verification systems and Decision Support Systems (DSS). 

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


Confidentiality

The property that information is not made available, or disclosed, to unauthorized individuals, entities or processes.

COACH


Conformance

The process through which vendors demonstrate that their software conforms to specified requirements.

 

Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information (adapted)


Consent

Voluntary agreement by an individual or his or her legally authorized representative to allow the collection, use or disclosure of the individual's personal information.

COACH

Note: In this document, the phrase "informational consent" refers to consent to share or disclose information, in contradiction to "consent to treatment".

NAPRA


Consumer health informatics

(Solutions de santé grand public)

The use of health informatics methods to facilitate the study and development of paper and electronic systems which support public access to and the use of health and lifestyle information. For additional discussion on the scope of consumer health informatics, see Eysenbach. See also eHealth.

 

Eysenbach G. Consumer health informatics. BMJ 2000;320:1713-6.


Counting systems

Automated dispensing systems used to fill prescriptions, including countertop devices and stand-alone cabinets. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010


Culture

An organization’s culture is the set of values and beliefs that cause people to behave in certain ways.  

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Custodian

An organization or regulated health professional (e.g. pharmacist, pharmacy, physician) in the health system who receives and uses health information.

Custodians are responsible for ensuring that health information is collected, protected, used and disclosed in compliance with the Act.

Alberta Health Information Act

D

Data

Discrete facts, often in the form of numbers, descriptions, or measurements. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Data mining

A technique used to examine large databases for trends or patterns in the data

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Data Quality

Processes and procedures that ensure the information collected through technical systems or databases, is standardized, comparable, accurate and well-understood so that the gathered information can be used for its intended purpose. 

Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information


Database

A database is a searchable collection of information, such as journal articles. You can quickly search a database using various search terms to find articles which are relevant to your topic.

University of Victoria Libraries. What is a database? FAQs. http://libanswers.uvic.ca/a.php?qid=71202. Updated July 28, 2015. Accessed December 22, 2016.

A group of related files. 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Decision Support Systems

Computerized systems designed to support clinician decision making. This may include provision of educational resources and guidelines, as well as automated alerts and reminders for healthcare providers. DSS are often integrated or embedded within CPOE systems.

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


Differential diagnosis

In an evidence-based clinical question, establishing the frequency of the underlying disorders in patients with a particular clinical presentation. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


DIS


Disclosure

The process of releasing or making available personal health information to a person, other than the person the information concerns, or a person employed by or in the service of the party holding the information.

COACH


Drug Identification Number (DIN)

Drug Identification Number (DIN) / Numéro d'identification du médicament (DIN)

A Drug Identification Number (DIN) is a computer generated eight digit number assigned by Health Canada to a drug product prior to being marketed in Canada. A DIN uniquely identifies the manufacturer, product name, active ingredients, strength(s) of active ingredient(s), pharmaceutical form, and route of administration. It does not uniquely identify the package or package size.


Drug Information System (DIS)

Drug Information System (DIS) / Système d’information sur les medicaments (SIM)

An electronic repository of medication and prescription data that is held at a regional level. A region could be a regional health authority or a province [e.g., PharmaNet in British Columbia and Pharmaceutical Information Program (PIP) in Saskatchewan].

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


E

e-Booking

Allows patients to book appointments online by choosing a date and time, and receive appointment confirmations and reminders electronically, without interacting with another person


e-Prescribing

e-Prescribing/Ordonnance électronique

A means of streamlining the prescription process by enabling prescriptions to be created, signed, and transmitted electronically.

Health Canada, Policy Statement on e-Prescribing

The secure electronic creation and transmission of a prescription between an authorized prescriber and a patient's pharmacy of choice, using clinical Electronic Medical Record (EMR) and pharmacy management software.

Joint Statement (Canadian Medical Association and Canadian Pharmacists Association, 2012)

 

 


e-Prescription Signing

Whatever is determined to be necessary to authenticate and validate the order in that pharmacists must have a high degree of certainty that the identified practitioner (in the electronic message) has ordered the prescription.

Health Canada, Policy Statement on e-Prescribing


e-Requests for Prescription Renewals or Refills

Electronic requests by patients for the renewal or refilling of their prescription medication, sent to a regulated health care provider


e-Views

Electronic viewing by a patient or their caregiver (with appropriate consent) of their personal health information, such as laboratory test results


e-Visits

Private, secure and digital two-way interactions between a patient and their health care provider available from the patient’s home


Early Adopters

Those who are opinion leaders in most social systems (respectable).

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Early Majority

Those who adopt new ideas just before the average member of a social system (deliberate).

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Electronic Health Record (EHR)

Electronic Health Record (EHR) / Dossier de santé électroniques (DSE)

An electronic health record (EHR) refers to the systems that make up the secure and private lifetime record of a person's health and health care history. These systems store and share such information as lab results, medication profiles, key clinical reports (e.g., hospital discharge summaries), diagnostic images (e.g., X-rays), and immunization history. The information is available electronically to authorized health care providers.

(Canada Health Infoway, 2017) 


Electronic Medical Record (EMR)

Electronic Medical Record (EMR) / Dossiers médicaux électroniques (DME)

An electronic medical record (EMR) is an office-based system that enables a health care professional, such as a family doctor, to record the information gathered during a patient's visit. This information might include a person's weight, blood pressure and clinical information, and would previously have been hand-written and stored in a file folder in a doctor's office. Eventually the EMR will also allow the doctor to access information about a patient's complete health record, including information from other health care providers that is stored in the EHR.

(Canada Health Infoway, 2017) 


Electronic Medication Administration Record (eMAR)

An electronic record of a patient’s medication administration history. 

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition 


Electronic Medication Reconciliation (eMedRec)

Use of electronic tools or Health IT to perform medication reconciliation.

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


Electronic Patient Record (EPR)

A computer-based clinical data system designed to replace paper patient records.


Electronic Pharmacy Record (EPhR)

A general term describing computer-based patient records used in the practice of pharmacy, The EPhR is the record created in the PPMS including information about a patient, care decisions made by pharmacy professionals, and services provided by pharmacy professionals (record of care).

NAPRA


Electronic prescribing

See also e-Prescribing.

A means of streamlining the prescription process by enabling prescriptions to be created, signed, and transmitted electronically.

Health Canada, Policy Statement on e-Prescribing

The secure electronic transmission from the authorized prescriber of a prescription to a patient's pharmacy of choice, integrated with pharmacy software.

National e-Pharmacy Task Force, 2009

The secure electronic creation and transmission of a prescription between an authorized prescriber and a patient's pharmacy of choice, using clinical Electronic Medical Record (EMR) and pharmacy management software.

Canadian Medical Association and Canadian Pharmacists Association e-Prescribing Working Group

The electronic processing of a prescription that begins with the prescriber entering the prescription directly into an electronic format, followed by all required parties verifying and processing the e-prescription in an electronic format. The final result is a labeled medication product, supportive documentation, and updated sharable patient electronic medication profile.

 Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


eMedRec Tool

A computerized tool to help support the MedRec processes. eMedRec tools are used to compare BPMH to orders and identify discrepancies by displaying medication lists and providing options to select whether to hold, continue, change or discontinue medications. eMedRec tools may be linked to CPOE so that orders can be made, modified or discontinued taking into account medication reconciliation

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


Encryption

The process of mathematically converting information to render it unintelligible without a key to decode it.

COACH
 


Evidence threshold

In clinical decision support systems, the minimum amount of evidence that should exist to substantiate presenting a drug-related problem to a pharmacist.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Evidence-based medicine

The conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Expressed Consent

Voluntary agreement with what is being done or proposed that is unequivocal and does not require any inference on the part of the patient.

COACH


F

Facilitator

A facilitator eases the way for all stakeholders in the change process, providing the environment where they can be actively engaged and empowered. Ideally, facilitators use participatory methods and have a broad base of knowledge and experience as adult educators and leaders of change.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Field

In databases, a grouping of characters into a word, small group of words, or a number.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


File

In databases, a compilation of related records.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Filtered Information

This information has gone through quality assessment and has been translated into recommendations for practice. Some resources which contain filtered information include: RxTx, Lexicomp, MicroMedex, Natural Medicines, The Cochrane Library (systematic reviews), and clinical practice guidelines.


Firewall

A set of security-related computer hardware and/or software programs that prevents unauthorized users for accessing an individual computer or a computer network.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


G

Global Trade Identification Number (GTIN)

An identifier for trade items developed by GS1 and used to look up product information in a database (often by inputting the number via a bar code scanner pointed at an actual product). Each GTIN is assigned by a manufacturer, reseller, or other entity in the product's supply chain. The uniqueness and universality of the identifier is useful in establishing which product in one database corresponds to which product in another database, especially across organizational boundaries.  


Governance

Governance concerns the mechanisms that are used to guide, steer or regulate the course of an organization or system. Within the realm of information and communications technology (ICT), governance refers to the structures and processed needed to ensure organization ICT strategies and objectives are achieved.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


GS1

A neutral, not-for-profit, global organisation that develops and maintains standards for supply and demand chains across multiple sectors.


H

Hard Stop

The requirement that MedRec steps be completed and is enforced by the eMedRec system (e.g., the user cannot proceed until required actions regarding medication decision making have been made). 

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


Harm

In an evidence-based clinical question, ascertainment of the effects of potentially harmful agents on patient-important outcomes.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Health 2.0

A health care concept that uses a specific set of Web tools to provide better health education, promote collaboration between patients and providers, and help providers deliver desired health outcomes.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Health informatics (medical informatics)

The study and application of methods to improve the management of patient data, medical knowledge, population data and other information relevant to patient care and community health. Branches of health informatics include bioinformatics, clinical informatics, consumer health informatics, and public health informatics

Greens RA, Shortliffe EH. Medical informatics: an emerging academic discipline and institutional priority. JAMA 1990;263:1114-20.


Health information exchange

The electronic movement of health-related information among organizations according to national recognized standards.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Health information management (HIM)

Discipline historically focusing on medical record management (in a paper environment); as medical records transition to digital, HIM has begun to overlap with informatics.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Health Information Network

The actual connection that allows for the private and secure transfer of personal health information among health care providers, community service providers, Regional Health Authorities (RHAs) and other authorized persons.

Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information


Health Information System (HIS)

An information system that processes healthcare data

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


Health Information Technology (HIT)

A broad concept that describes the use of computer hardware, software, or infrastructure to record, store, protect, and retrieve clinical, administrative, or financial information.

Examples of Health IT include: electronic health records, personal health records, electronic medical records, and electronic prescribing (e-Prescribing). 

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


Health Level 7 (HL7) standard

A human-readable messaging standard that exists to move patient information between disparate information systems. “Level Seven” refers to the seventh level (i.e., application level) of the Open Systems Interconnection model developed by the International Organization for Standardization.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Hierarchical database

Database model that uses a parent-child relations in which a parent record may have multiple child records, but each child record has a single parent. This model is organized in an inverted tree manner, in which data access starts at the top and moves down “limbs” of the tree.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Hierarchy of evidence

In evidence-based medicine, a system of classifying and organizing types of evidence, typically for questions about treatment and prevention.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Human factors

Physical, mental or behavioral properties of people that may have critical influence on how people interact with technological systems, organizations or their environment.

 

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 


I

Imaging informatics

A broad term that indicated the application of informatics to the management of diagnostic images in health care.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Implied Consent

Voluntary agreement with what is being done or proposed that can be reason­ably determined through the actions or inactions of the person.

COACH


Informatics

Use of computers to manage data and information.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Information and Communications Technology

Technologies that facilitate communication and the processing and transmission of information by electronic means. Examples in health include health information networks, electronic health records, telemedicine services, wearable and portable systems, health portals, and other technology-based tools assisting disease prevention, diagnosis, treatment, health monitoring and lifestyle management.

Canada Health Infoway - A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change

 


Informed consent

The requirement that consent is not valid in the absence of knowledge.

COACH


Innovators

Those who are very eager to try new ideas (venturesome).

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Integrity

The property that data has not been altered or destroyed in an unauthorised manner.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)


Intentional Discrepancy

The prescriber has made a choice to add, change or discontinue a medication and this has been clearly documented. 

Canadian Patient Safety Institute and ISMP Canada (2017). Medication Reconciliation in Acute Care Getting Started Kit, version 4. 


Interactive voice response (IVR)

A system that allows patients to use their telephone, keypad, and voice to communicate with the pharmacy’s computer system to request refills, determine the status of prescriptions being filled, leave messages for the pharmacy staff, and perform a host of other activities.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Interface

Internal communication between two separate entities (i.e., hardware or software) that allows information and resources to be shared without affecting how external entities (i.e., a user) interacts with each system.

 

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 


Interoperability

The ability of two or more systems to exchange information or function together.

Canada Health Infoway, EHRS Blueprint Version 2


K

Knowledge base

In a clinical decision support system, the component that contains clinical knowledge, such as drug interactions, diagnoses, or treatment guidelines.

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Knowledge management

The identification, mobilization and use of knowledge to improve decisions and actions.  

Wyatt JC. Clinical knowledge and practice in the information age: a handbook for health professionals. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press, 2001.


L

La prise de rendez-vous électronique

permet aux patients de prendre rendez-vous en ligne à la date et à l'heure qui leur conviennent et de recevoir une confirmation et des rappels par voie électronique, sans avoir à interagir avec une autre personne


La télésurveillance des patients (TSP)

est centrée sur la prestation de soins de santé à des patients qui se trouvent hors d'un milieu de soins conventionnel (par exemple à leur domicile) au moyen d'une technologie qui leur permet de se connecter à leur professionnel de la santé. Ceux-ci travaillent en équipe afin de maintenir et d'améliorer la santé du patient, souvent selon un modèle d'encadrement. La télésurveillance des patients suppose habituellement la transmission électronique, à un professionnel de la santé, de données sur le patient (ses symptômes, ses signes vitaux, les effets du traitement, par exemple) à partir de son domicile, ainsi que les démarches et les services de soutien nécessaires à l'examen et à l'interprétation des données et la modification possible du traitement que suit le patient


Laboratory database

Laboratory database / Systèmes d’information de laboratoire (SIL)

A database in an integrated health information system or module-based laboratory information system that contains current and historical patient-specific laboratory information.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Laggards

The last group to adopt an innovation (traditional).

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Late majority

Those who adapt new ideas just after the average member of a social system (skeptical).

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Latent needs

Needs that are present but have not been consciously realized. In clinical decision support systems, an example is notifying a clinician when a patient’s medication dose needs to be adjusted for worsening renal function.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Local area network (LAN)

The smallest collection of networked computers sharing the same range of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


M

Meaningful use

In the context of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, demonstration of meaningful use of electronic patient records by eligible providers (institutions and physicians) to be eligible for financial incentives and to avoid financial penalties.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Medical knowledge (clinical knowledge)

Information about diseases, therapies, interpretation of lab tests etc., and potentially applicable to decisions about multiple patients and public health policies, unlike patient data. This information should where possible be based on sound evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies, using valid and reliable methods.


Medication database

A database in an integrated health information system or module-based pharmacy information management system that contains current, and in some cases historical, patient-specific medication information.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Medication incident

Any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm while the medication is in the control of the healthcare professional, patient, or consumer. Medication incidents may be related to professional practice, drug products, procedures, and systems, and include prescribing, order communication, product labelling/ packaging/ nomenclature, compounding, dispensing, distribution, administration, education, monitoring, and use.

 

Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Canada


Medication management

Patient-centred care to optimize safe, effective and appropriate drug therapy. Care is provided through collaboration with patients and their health care teams.

 

Blueprint for Pharmacy National Coordinating Office


Medication Profile

A historical and current list of medications related to a specific patient.

Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information


Medication reconciliation

Medication reconciliation is a formal process in which healthcare providers work together with patients, families, and care providers to ensure that accurate, comprehensive medication information is communicated consistently across transitions of care.

 

Canadian Patient Safety Institute


Medication Safety

Freedom from accidental injury during the course of medication use; activities to avoid, prevent, or correct adverse drug events which may result from the use of medications. 


Medication Use System

A combination of interdependent processes that share the common goal of safe, effective, appropriate, and efficient provision of drug therapy to patients. Major processes in the medication use system are: selecting and procuring, storage, prescribing, transcribing, and verifying / reviewing, preparing, and dispensing, administering, and monitoring.

 (Cohen, 1999)


N

NAPRA

National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities


O

Operating system

A computer’s software system that acts as the interface between programs, hardware, and systems resources such as the system bus, computer processing unit bus, main memory, and hard disk. A user utilizes the operating system to interact with a computer.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Outcomes measurement

Refers to the extent to which a program achieves its stated objectives. Also referred to as “outcomes evaluation,” it measures outputs and outcomes (including unintended effects) to determine program effectiveness, but may also assess program process to understand how outcomes are produced.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


P

Patient data

Information about an individual patient and potentially relevant to decisions about her current or future health or illness. Patient data should be collected using methods that minimize systematic and random error.


Patient-centred medical home

An approach to providing comprehensive primary care in which a personal clinician takes responsibility for ongoing care of a patient and coordinates patient care across the continuum of the health care system.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Permanent storage/memory

Data stored permanently in a computer (even when the power is turned off) so that the data can be used at some time in the future. Storage devices include hard disks, digital video disks, compact disks, and Universal Serial Bus (USB) flash drives.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Personal Health Information

Information about an individual that identifies the individual, or that may be used or manipulated by a reasonably foreseeable method to identify the individual, or that may be linked by a reasonably foreseeable method to other information that identifies the individual; and that may include information related to the physical or mental health of the individual; the provision of health services to the individual; the registration of the individual for the provision of health services; the donation of any body part or bodily substance of the individual, or is derived from the testing or examination of any such body part or bodily substance; payments or eligibility for healthcare; a number, symbol or particular assigned to an individual to uniquely identify the individual for health system purposes; information that is collected in the course of the provision of health services to the individual; or registration and practice information about a health professional.

COACH


Personal Health Record (PHR)

A complete or partial health record under the custodianship of a person(s) (e.g. a patient or family member) that holds all or a portion of the relevant health information about that person over their lifetime. This is also a person-centric health record, but unlike the EHR, the patient has control or “custodianship” over the record, rather than the health care provider. (Canada Health Infoway, 2017)

This record may be maintained using electronic tools such as consumer Apps or web-based resources.

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


Pharmaceutical supply chain

The means through which prescription medications are delivered to patients. The major players are pharmaceutical manufacturers, wholesale distributors, pharmacists, and pharmacy benefit managers.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Pharmacy Informatics

Use and integration of data, information, knowledge, technology, and automation in the medication use process for the purpose of improving health outcomes.

Building Core Competencies in Pharmacy Informatics, APhA 2010


Pharmacy Practice Management System (PPMS)

An electronic system that supports the provision of pharmacy patient care as defined through NAPRA standards of professional practice. A PPMS facilitates the recording, use and disclosure of electronic pharmacy records and reporting on these records.

Note: PPMS capabilities need not be embedded in a single, monolithic software program. PPMS functionality may be provided by a combination of software packages, tools and IT services that together function as a coherent system.

NAPRA

 


Prescriber

The health practitioner who has the legal authority for ordering medications.  

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Primary key

A unique identifier for a database record that allows one or more applications to access, organize and retrieve data. For example, a medical record number is a likely primary key in a patient table.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Primary Medication History

A medication history taken at the time of admission using various sources of information, including patient/family interviews, review of medication lists/vials, or follow-up with the community pharmacy or family physician.

Canadian Patient Safety Institute and ISMP Canada (2017). Medication Reconciliation in Acute Care Getting Started Kit, version 4. 


Privacy

(1) The right to be free from intrusion and interruption. It is linked with other fundamental rights such as freedom and personal autonomy. In relation to information, privacy involves the right of individuals to determine when, how and to what extent they share information about themselves with others.

(2) Freedom from intrusion into the private life or affairs of an individual when that intrusion results from undue or illegal gathering and use of information about that individual.

(3) The right of individuals to live free of intrusive monitoring of their personal affairs by third parties not of their choosing.

(4) The claim of individuals, groups or institutions to determine for themselves when, how and to what extent information about them is communicated to others.

COACH


Privacy Breach

A confirmed unauthorized or illegal use or disclosure of personal or personal health information.

COACH


Provider Registry

Provider Registry / Registres des prestateurs

A system or a combination of systems where a health care provider's information (i.e. name, address, practice licenses, etc) is securely stored, maintained and made available to other systems and users.

Canada Health Infoway, EHRS Bueprint Version 2


Q

Quality

In health care, the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge.

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Query

A database search function that allows the user to search across multiple tables and extract data that meet predefined, desired parameters.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


R

Randomized controlled trial (RCT)

A medical research study in which subjects are randomly assigned to a treatment, no treatment, or placebo group. An RCT is usually blinded (i.e., neither the researcher nor the subject knows which intervention the subject received).

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Registry

A database and associated applications on a specified group of patients (often those with a certain disease or who have undergone a specific procedure), health professionals, organizations or even clinical trials. Key issues in registries are maintaining confidentiality, coverage of the target population and data quality.


Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM)

focuses on the delivery of health care to patients outside of conventional care settings (e.g., a patient's home), made possible by connecting the patient and a health care provider through technology. They work together as a care team to maintain and improve the patient's health, often in a coaching model. RPM also typically involves the electronic transmission of patient data (e.g., symptoms, vital signs, outcomes) from a remote home location to the provider, as well as the supporting services and processes required to conduct data review, interpretation and potential alteration of the patient's course of care


Renouvellements électroniques d’ordonnances

Demandes, amorcées par le patient, de renouvellement d’ordonnances de médicament envoyées à un professionnel de la santé réglementé


Robotic cart filling system

An automated dispensing device that uses bar coding to locate, obtain, package, label, and deliver medications for specific patients by filling unit-dose carts.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Root cause analysis (RCA)

An investigation technique that systematically seeks to understand the underlying (root) causes of an error by looking at all the systems involved.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


S

Security

The preservation of the confidentiality, integrity and availability of personal health information.

COACH


Security incident

Unauthorized access, use, disclosure, modification, or destruction of electronic protected health information (ePHI). 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Severity threshold

In clinical decision support systems, the minimum severity that a drug-related problem must achieve prior to being presented to the pharmacist.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Single Unit Packaging

A single unit package is one that contains one discrete pharmaceutical dosage form; i.e. one tablet, one 2 mL volume of liquid, one 2 g mass of ointment, etc. A single unit package is also a unit dose or single dose package if it contains the particular dose of the drug ordered for the patient.


Smart pump

A device that administers IV solutions and contains drug libraries and dosing parameters for commonly used medications.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Soft Stop

Soft stops are computer-based reminders. For example, if the BPMH is expected to be complete within six hours of admission, at three hours after admission a reminder could be sent to the person responsible for completing the BPMH to complete it.

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


Stakeholder

An individual or group with an interest in the success of an organization and its products. Thus, stakeholders could consist of the organization’s own members, senior authorities either within or outside the organization, suppliers, etc. Stakeholders are groups internal and external to the organization that affect the organization’s interests.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Structured Query Language (SQL)

A unique language that is used to perform actions on data within a database and is the standard query language in relational database management systems.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Sustainability

Described as “when new ways of working and improved outcomes become the norm.” Sustainability is achieved when processes have changed and benefits are realized and have even further evolved over time. Sustainability results when the change becomes an integrated or mainstream way of working rather than something “added on.”

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Symbologies

A standardized bar coding methodology that enables capturing product information contained in data printed in machine readable format and read using a bar code reader so that it can be immediately captured for data entry purposes by a pharmacist or by a healthcare provider administering the drug in a hospital, clinic, or nursing home.  


Synchronous communication

Two-way communication that occurs in real time (simultaneously). Examples include the telephone, instant messaging, videoconferencing, and text messages.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


System

An independent but interrelated group of parts working toward a common goal. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


T

Telecommunications

Electronic communications over distance.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Telehealth

Telehealth / Télésanté

Use of electronic information and telecommunication technologies to support long-distance clinical health care, patient professional health-related education, public health and administration.

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Telemedicine

The use of any electronic medium to mediate or augment clinical consultations. Telemedicine can be simultaneous (e.g. telephone, videoconference) or store and forward (e.g. an email with an attached image).


Telepharmacy

A subset of telehealth activities focused on medication management, including education, patient care, and administration.

 Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Traceability

Traceability is the ability to verify the history, location, or application of an item by means of documented recorded identification.


Transition

Transition is an internal, psychological re-orientation experienced by people coming to terms with a change. It is a process or inner experience not necessarily focused on outcome or results. It is timed differently than the external changes that caused it.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Transitions in care

A care transition describes the transfer of a patient between different settings and health care providers during the course of an acute or chronic illness.

Coleman, E.A. (2003) Falling through the cracks: challenges and opportunities for improving transitional care for persons with continuous complex care needs. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(4), 549–55.


U

Unintentional Discrepancy

A potential medication error in which the prescriber changed, added or omitted a medication the patient was taking prior to admission.

Canadian Patient Safety Institute and ISMP Canada (2017). Medication Reconciliation in Acute Care Getting Started Kit, version 4.


Usability

Quality attributed to an application system that describes its effectiveness and ease of use as determined by its users.

 

Canada Health Infoway, EHRS Blueprint Version 2


User

Person, device, program, or computer systems that uses a computer system for the purpose of data processing and information exchange.

 Canada Health Infoway, EHRS Blueprint Version 2


User interface

The mechanism used by the health care practitioner to access information in an information system.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


V

Vendor

A company or group of companies that provide software and/or software-related support services to clinicians in the province (e.g. EMR and PPMS providers).

 

Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information


Virtual Private Network

A network in which some of the parts are connected using the public Internet, but the data sent across the Internet is encrypted, so the entire network is 'virtually' private.

 

Canada Health Infoway, EHRS Blueprint Version 2


Visites électroniques

Interactions amorcées par le patient avec un professionnel de la santé réglementé qui lui offre des soins de santé à distance, de façon sûre et à l’ordinateur


Visualisation électronique des renseignements personnels sur la santé

permettront aux personnes de consulter en toute sécurité, en ligne ou à l’aide d’un appareil mobile, les renseignements personnels sur leur santé (et/ou, s’ils y sont autorisés, ceux d’un parent ou d’un ami) qui sont générés par un professionnel de la santé réglementé


W

Web 2.0

Interactive and social media applications that comprise the second generation of the Internet, which developed after the 2001 collapse of the dot.com bubble.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


What’s In It For Me (WIIFM)

A useful way to consider the different needs and attitudes of those who will be key stakeholders in an improvement initiative is to carry out a “what’s in it for me” analysis. WIIFM criteria could include: deeply held values and beliefs; working relationships; conditions of work: place, hours etc.; salary; job security; nature of work: tasks, responsibilities etc.; and power: status, position, identity. The more criteria that are negatively affected by the change, the greater the resistance to change. Changes that negatively interfere with a person’s power, status, position and identity will evoke the most emotion.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Workflow management

In pharmacy, the application of computer systems, software, bar code scanning, photography, and other automatic identification methods to streamline and systematize work processes, and to improve visibility of the current state of those processes for individual work items.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.



Page:  1  2  3  4  (Next)
  ALL