Global Glossary: Pharmacy Informatics


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C

Cohort study

A medical research study that evaluates, over a period of time, a large number of patients who have a specific condition or receive a particular treatment and compares them with another group that have all the baseline characteristics but not the condition being studied. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Communication protocol or standard

A set of rules that each networked device or computer follows so that data can be communicated between systems without error or communication-sharing conflicts over a computer network. Network connectivity and control hardware provide the physical connectivity and utilize network control logic to enforce sharing of the network medium in a reliable and safe manner.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Computer networking

Interchange or intercommunication for sharing data, applications, or computerized clinical services between computer systems. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Computerized patient record systems (CPRS)

Clinical enterprise systems comprising software applications that are used in acute patient care (hospital, surgery center, etc.) to manage clinical data in databases. The applications contain online functions that support inpatient workflow and online views of patient information.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE)

Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) / Systèmes informatisés d'entrée d'ordonnances (SIEO)

A Health IT that facilitates the process of electronic order entry. CPOE allows authorized healthcare providers to order medications, tests and procedures, and provide other instructions pertaining to the treatment of patients under their care. These systems generally integrate with pharmacy order entry/verification systems and Decision Support Systems (DSS). 

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


Confidentiality

The property that information is not made available, or disclosed, to unauthorized individuals, entities or processes.

COACH


Conformance

The process through which vendors demonstrate that their software conforms to specified requirements.

 

Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information (adapted)


Consent

Voluntary agreement by an individual or his or her legally authorized representative to allow the collection, use or disclosure of the individual's personal information.

COACH

Note: In this document, the phrase "informational consent" refers to consent to share or disclose information, in contradiction to "consent to treatment".

NAPRA


Consumer health informatics

(Solutions de santé grand public)

The use of health informatics methods to facilitate the study and development of paper and electronic systems which support public access to and the use of health and lifestyle information. For additional discussion on the scope of consumer health informatics, see Eysenbach. See also eHealth.

 

Eysenbach G. Consumer health informatics. BMJ 2000;320:1713-6.


Counting systems

Automated dispensing systems used to fill prescriptions, including countertop devices and stand-alone cabinets. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010


Culture

An organization’s culture is the set of values and beliefs that cause people to behave in certain ways.  

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Custodian

An organization or regulated health professional (e.g. pharmacist, pharmacy, physician) in the health system who receives and uses health information.

Custodians are responsible for ensuring that health information is collected, protected, used and disclosed in compliance with the Act.

Alberta Health Information Act

D

Data

Discrete facts, often in the form of numbers, descriptions, or measurements. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Data mining

A technique used to examine large databases for trends or patterns in the data

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Data Quality

Processes and procedures that ensure the information collected through technical systems or databases, is standardized, comparable, accurate and well-understood so that the gathered information can be used for its intended purpose. 

Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information


Database

A database is a searchable collection of information, such as journal articles. You can quickly search a database using various search terms to find articles which are relevant to your topic.

University of Victoria Libraries. What is a database? FAQs. http://libanswers.uvic.ca/a.php?qid=71202. Updated July 28, 2015. Accessed December 22, 2016.

A group of related files. 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Decision Support Systems

Computerized systems designed to support clinician decision making. This may include provision of educational resources and guidelines, as well as automated alerts and reminders for healthcare providers. DSS are often integrated or embedded within CPOE systems.

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


Differential diagnosis

In an evidence-based clinical question, establishing the frequency of the underlying disorders in patients with a particular clinical presentation. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


DIS


Disclosure

The process of releasing or making available personal health information to a person, other than the person the information concerns, or a person employed by or in the service of the party holding the information.

COACH


Drug Identification Number (DIN)

Drug Identification Number (DIN) / Numéro d'identification du médicament (DIN)

A Drug Identification Number (DIN) is a computer generated eight digit number assigned by Health Canada to a drug product prior to being marketed in Canada. A DIN uniquely identifies the manufacturer, product name, active ingredients, strength(s) of active ingredient(s), pharmaceutical form, and route of administration. It does not uniquely identify the package or package size.


Drug Information System (DIS)

Drug Information System (DIS) / Système d’information sur les medicaments (SIM)

An electronic repository of medication and prescription data that is held at a regional level. A region could be a regional health authority or a province [e.g., PharmaNet in British Columbia and Pharmaceutical Information Program (PIP) in Saskatchewan].

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


E

e-Booking

Allows patients to book appointments online by choosing a date and time, and receive appointment confirmations and reminders electronically, without interacting with another person


e-Prescribing

e-Prescribing/Ordonnance électronique

A means of streamlining the prescription process by enabling prescriptions to be created, signed, and transmitted electronically.

Health Canada, Policy Statement on e-Prescribing

The secure electronic creation and transmission of a prescription between an authorized prescriber and a patient's pharmacy of choice, using clinical Electronic Medical Record (EMR) and pharmacy management software.

Joint Statement (Canadian Medical Association and Canadian Pharmacists Association, 2012)

 

 


e-Prescription Signing

Whatever is determined to be necessary to authenticate and validate the order in that pharmacists must have a high degree of certainty that the identified practitioner (in the electronic message) has ordered the prescription.

Health Canada, Policy Statement on e-Prescribing


e-Requests for Prescription Renewals or Refills

Electronic requests by patients for the renewal or refilling of their prescription medication, sent to a regulated health care provider


e-Views

Electronic viewing by a patient or their caregiver (with appropriate consent) of their personal health information, such as laboratory test results


e-Visits

Private, secure and digital two-way interactions between a patient and their health care provider available from the patient’s home


Early Adopters

Those who are opinion leaders in most social systems (respectable).

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Early Majority

Those who adopt new ideas just before the average member of a social system (deliberate).

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Electronic Health Record (EHR)

Electronic Health Record (EHR) / Dossier de santé électroniques (DSE)

An electronic health record (EHR) refers to the systems that make up the secure and private lifetime record of a person's health and health care history. These systems store and share such information as lab results, medication profiles, key clinical reports (e.g., hospital discharge summaries), diagnostic images (e.g., X-rays), and immunization history. The information is available electronically to authorized health care providers.

(Canada Health Infoway, 2017) 


Electronic Medical Record (EMR)

Electronic Medical Record (EMR) / Dossiers médicaux électroniques (DME)

An electronic medical record (EMR) is an office-based system that enables a health care professional, such as a family doctor, to record the information gathered during a patient's visit. This information might include a person's weight, blood pressure and clinical information, and would previously have been hand-written and stored in a file folder in a doctor's office. Eventually the EMR will also allow the doctor to access information about a patient's complete health record, including information from other health care providers that is stored in the EHR.

(Canada Health Infoway, 2017) 


Electronic Medication Administration Record (eMAR)

An electronic record of a patient’s medication administration history. 

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition 


Electronic Medication Reconciliation (eMedRec)

Use of electronic tools or Health IT to perform medication reconciliation.

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


Electronic Patient Record (EPR)

A computer-based clinical data system designed to replace paper patient records.


Electronic Pharmacy Record (EPhR)

A general term describing computer-based patient records used in the practice of pharmacy, The EPhR is the record created in the PPMS including information about a patient, care decisions made by pharmacy professionals, and services provided by pharmacy professionals (record of care).

NAPRA


Electronic prescribing

See also e-Prescribing.

A means of streamlining the prescription process by enabling prescriptions to be created, signed, and transmitted electronically.

Health Canada, Policy Statement on e-Prescribing

The secure electronic transmission from the authorized prescriber of a prescription to a patient's pharmacy of choice, integrated with pharmacy software.

National e-Pharmacy Task Force, 2009

The secure electronic creation and transmission of a prescription between an authorized prescriber and a patient's pharmacy of choice, using clinical Electronic Medical Record (EMR) and pharmacy management software.

Canadian Medical Association and Canadian Pharmacists Association e-Prescribing Working Group

The electronic processing of a prescription that begins with the prescriber entering the prescription directly into an electronic format, followed by all required parties verifying and processing the e-prescription in an electronic format. The final result is a labeled medication product, supportive documentation, and updated sharable patient electronic medication profile.

 Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


eMedRec Tool

A computerized tool to help support the MedRec processes. eMedRec tools are used to compare BPMH to orders and identify discrepancies by displaying medication lists and providing options to select whether to hold, continue, change or discontinue medications. eMedRec tools may be linked to CPOE so that orders can be made, modified or discontinued taking into account medication reconciliation

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


Encryption

The process of mathematically converting information to render it unintelligible without a key to decode it.

COACH
 


Evidence threshold

In clinical decision support systems, the minimum amount of evidence that should exist to substantiate presenting a drug-related problem to a pharmacist.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Evidence-based medicine

The conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Expressed Consent

Voluntary agreement with what is being done or proposed that is unequivocal and does not require any inference on the part of the patient.

COACH


F

Facilitator

A facilitator eases the way for all stakeholders in the change process, providing the environment where they can be actively engaged and empowered. Ideally, facilitators use participatory methods and have a broad base of knowledge and experience as adult educators and leaders of change.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Field

In databases, a grouping of characters into a word, small group of words, or a number.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


File

In databases, a compilation of related records.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Filtered Information

This information has gone through quality assessment and has been translated into recommendations for practice. Some resources which contain filtered information include: RxTx, Lexicomp, MicroMedex, Natural Medicines, The Cochrane Library (systematic reviews), and clinical practice guidelines.


Firewall

A set of security-related computer hardware and/or software programs that prevents unauthorized users for accessing an individual computer or a computer network.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


G

Global Trade Identification Number (GTIN)

An identifier for trade items developed by GS1 and used to look up product information in a database (often by inputting the number via a bar code scanner pointed at an actual product). Each GTIN is assigned by a manufacturer, reseller, or other entity in the product's supply chain. The uniqueness and universality of the identifier is useful in establishing which product in one database corresponds to which product in another database, especially across organizational boundaries.  


Governance

Governance concerns the mechanisms that are used to guide, steer or regulate the course of an organization or system. Within the realm of information and communications technology (ICT), governance refers to the structures and processed needed to ensure organization ICT strategies and objectives are achieved.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


GS1

A neutral, not-for-profit, global organisation that develops and maintains standards for supply and demand chains across multiple sectors.



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