Global Glossary: Pharmacy Informatics


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H

Hard Stop

The requirement that MedRec steps be completed and is enforced by the eMedRec system (e.g., the user cannot proceed until required actions regarding medication decision making have been made). 

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


Harm

In an evidence-based clinical question, ascertainment of the effects of potentially harmful agents on patient-important outcomes.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Health 2.0

A health care concept that uses a specific set of Web tools to provide better health education, promote collaboration between patients and providers, and help providers deliver desired health outcomes.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Health informatics (medical informatics)

The study and application of methods to improve the management of patient data, medical knowledge, population data and other information relevant to patient care and community health. Branches of health informatics include bioinformatics, clinical informatics, consumer health informatics, and public health informatics

Greens RA, Shortliffe EH. Medical informatics: an emerging academic discipline and institutional priority. JAMA 1990;263:1114-20.


Health information exchange

The electronic movement of health-related information among organizations according to national recognized standards.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Health information management (HIM)

Discipline historically focusing on medical record management (in a paper environment); as medical records transition to digital, HIM has begun to overlap with informatics.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Health Information Network

The actual connection that allows for the private and secure transfer of personal health information among health care providers, community service providers, Regional Health Authorities (RHAs) and other authorized persons.

Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information


Health Information System (HIS)

An information system that processes healthcare data

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


Health Information Technology (HIT)

A broad concept that describes the use of computer hardware, software, or infrastructure to record, store, protect, and retrieve clinical, administrative, or financial information.

Examples of Health IT include: electronic health records, personal health records, electronic medical records, and electronic prescribing (e-Prescribing). 

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


Health Level 7 (HL7) standard

A human-readable messaging standard that exists to move patient information between disparate information systems. “Level Seven” refers to the seventh level (i.e., application level) of the Open Systems Interconnection model developed by the International Organization for Standardization.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Hierarchical database

Database model that uses a parent-child relations in which a parent record may have multiple child records, but each child record has a single parent. This model is organized in an inverted tree manner, in which data access starts at the top and moves down “limbs” of the tree.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Hierarchy of evidence

In evidence-based medicine, a system of classifying and organizing types of evidence, typically for questions about treatment and prevention.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Human factors

Physical, mental or behavioral properties of people that may have critical influence on how people interact with technological systems, organizations or their environment.

 

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 


I

Imaging informatics

A broad term that indicated the application of informatics to the management of diagnostic images in health care.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Implied Consent

Voluntary agreement with what is being done or proposed that can be reason­ably determined through the actions or inactions of the person.

COACH


Informatics

Use of computers to manage data and information.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Information and Communications Technology

Technologies that facilitate communication and the processing and transmission of information by electronic means. Examples in health include health information networks, electronic health records, telemedicine services, wearable and portable systems, health portals, and other technology-based tools assisting disease prevention, diagnosis, treatment, health monitoring and lifestyle management.

Canada Health Infoway - A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change

 


Informed consent

The requirement that consent is not valid in the absence of knowledge.

COACH


Innovators

Those who are very eager to try new ideas (venturesome).

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Integrity

The property that data has not been altered or destroyed in an unauthorised manner.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)


Intentional Discrepancy

The prescriber has made a choice to add, change or discontinue a medication and this has been clearly documented. 

Canadian Patient Safety Institute and ISMP Canada (2017). Medication Reconciliation in Acute Care Getting Started Kit, version 4. 


Interactive voice response (IVR)

A system that allows patients to use their telephone, keypad, and voice to communicate with the pharmacy’s computer system to request refills, determine the status of prescriptions being filled, leave messages for the pharmacy staff, and perform a host of other activities.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Interface

Internal communication between two separate entities (i.e., hardware or software) that allows information and resources to be shared without affecting how external entities (i.e., a user) interacts with each system.

 

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 


Interoperability

The ability of two or more systems to exchange information or function together.

Canada Health Infoway, EHRS Blueprint Version 2


K

Knowledge base

In a clinical decision support system, the component that contains clinical knowledge, such as drug interactions, diagnoses, or treatment guidelines.

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Knowledge management

The identification, mobilization and use of knowledge to improve decisions and actions.  

Wyatt JC. Clinical knowledge and practice in the information age: a handbook for health professionals. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press, 2001.


L

La prise de rendez-vous électronique

permet aux patients de prendre rendez-vous en ligne à la date et à l'heure qui leur conviennent et de recevoir une confirmation et des rappels par voie électronique, sans avoir à interagir avec une autre personne


La télésurveillance des patients (TSP)

est centrée sur la prestation de soins de santé à des patients qui se trouvent hors d'un milieu de soins conventionnel (par exemple à leur domicile) au moyen d'une technologie qui leur permet de se connecter à leur professionnel de la santé. Ceux-ci travaillent en équipe afin de maintenir et d'améliorer la santé du patient, souvent selon un modèle d'encadrement. La télésurveillance des patients suppose habituellement la transmission électronique, à un professionnel de la santé, de données sur le patient (ses symptômes, ses signes vitaux, les effets du traitement, par exemple) à partir de son domicile, ainsi que les démarches et les services de soutien nécessaires à l'examen et à l'interprétation des données et la modification possible du traitement que suit le patient


Laboratory database

Laboratory database / Systèmes d’information de laboratoire (SIL)

A database in an integrated health information system or module-based laboratory information system that contains current and historical patient-specific laboratory information.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Laggards

The last group to adopt an innovation (traditional).

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Late majority

Those who adapt new ideas just after the average member of a social system (skeptical).

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Latent needs

Needs that are present but have not been consciously realized. In clinical decision support systems, an example is notifying a clinician when a patient’s medication dose needs to be adjusted for worsening renal function.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Local area network (LAN)

The smallest collection of networked computers sharing the same range of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


M

Meaningful use

In the context of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, demonstration of meaningful use of electronic patient records by eligible providers (institutions and physicians) to be eligible for financial incentives and to avoid financial penalties.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Medical knowledge (clinical knowledge)

Information about diseases, therapies, interpretation of lab tests etc., and potentially applicable to decisions about multiple patients and public health policies, unlike patient data. This information should where possible be based on sound evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies, using valid and reliable methods.


Medication database

A database in an integrated health information system or module-based pharmacy information management system that contains current, and in some cases historical, patient-specific medication information.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Medication incident

Any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm while the medication is in the control of the healthcare professional, patient, or consumer. Medication incidents may be related to professional practice, drug products, procedures, and systems, and include prescribing, order communication, product labelling/ packaging/ nomenclature, compounding, dispensing, distribution, administration, education, monitoring, and use.

 

Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Canada


Medication management

Patient-centred care to optimize safe, effective and appropriate drug therapy. Care is provided through collaboration with patients and their health care teams.

 

Blueprint for Pharmacy National Coordinating Office


Medication Profile

A historical and current list of medications related to a specific patient.

Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information


Medication reconciliation

Medication reconciliation is a formal process in which healthcare providers work together with patients, families, and care providers to ensure that accurate, comprehensive medication information is communicated consistently across transitions of care.

 

Canadian Patient Safety Institute


Medication Safety

Freedom from accidental injury during the course of medication use; activities to avoid, prevent, or correct adverse drug events which may result from the use of medications. 


Medication Use System

A combination of interdependent processes that share the common goal of safe, effective, appropriate, and efficient provision of drug therapy to patients. Major processes in the medication use system are: selecting and procuring, storage, prescribing, transcribing, and verifying / reviewing, preparing, and dispensing, administering, and monitoring.

 (Cohen, 1999)


N

NAPRA

National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities


O

Operating system

A computer’s software system that acts as the interface between programs, hardware, and systems resources such as the system bus, computer processing unit bus, main memory, and hard disk. A user utilizes the operating system to interact with a computer.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Outcomes measurement

Refers to the extent to which a program achieves its stated objectives. Also referred to as “outcomes evaluation,” it measures outputs and outcomes (including unintended effects) to determine program effectiveness, but may also assess program process to understand how outcomes are produced.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


P

Patient data

Information about an individual patient and potentially relevant to decisions about her current or future health or illness. Patient data should be collected using methods that minimize systematic and random error.


Patient-centred medical home

An approach to providing comprehensive primary care in which a personal clinician takes responsibility for ongoing care of a patient and coordinates patient care across the continuum of the health care system.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Permanent storage/memory

Data stored permanently in a computer (even when the power is turned off) so that the data can be used at some time in the future. Storage devices include hard disks, digital video disks, compact disks, and Universal Serial Bus (USB) flash drives.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Personal Health Information

Information about an individual that identifies the individual, or that may be used or manipulated by a reasonably foreseeable method to identify the individual, or that may be linked by a reasonably foreseeable method to other information that identifies the individual; and that may include information related to the physical or mental health of the individual; the provision of health services to the individual; the registration of the individual for the provision of health services; the donation of any body part or bodily substance of the individual, or is derived from the testing or examination of any such body part or bodily substance; payments or eligibility for healthcare; a number, symbol or particular assigned to an individual to uniquely identify the individual for health system purposes; information that is collected in the course of the provision of health services to the individual; or registration and practice information about a health professional.

COACH


Personal Health Record (PHR)

A complete or partial health record under the custodianship of a person(s) (e.g. a patient or family member) that holds all or a portion of the relevant health information about that person over their lifetime. This is also a person-centric health record, but unlike the EHR, the patient has control or “custodianship” over the record, rather than the health care provider. (Canada Health Infoway, 2017)

This record may be maintained using electronic tools such as consumer Apps or web-based resources.

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition



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