Global Glossary: Pharmacy Informatics


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P

Pharmaceutical supply chain

The means through which prescription medications are delivered to patients. The major players are pharmaceutical manufacturers, wholesale distributors, pharmacists, and pharmacy benefit managers.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Pharmacy Informatics

Use and integration of data, information, knowledge, technology, and automation in the medication use process for the purpose of improving health outcomes.

Building Core Competencies in Pharmacy Informatics, APhA 2010


Pharmacy Practice Management System (PPMS)

An electronic system that supports the provision of pharmacy patient care as defined through NAPRA standards of professional practice. A PPMS facilitates the recording, use and disclosure of electronic pharmacy records and reporting on these records.

Note: PPMS capabilities need not be embedded in a single, monolithic software program. PPMS functionality may be provided by a combination of software packages, tools and IT services that together function as a coherent system.

NAPRA

 


Prescriber

The health practitioner who has the legal authority for ordering medications.  

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Primary key

A unique identifier for a database record that allows one or more applications to access, organize and retrieve data. For example, a medical record number is a likely primary key in a patient table.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Primary Medication History

A medication history taken at the time of admission using various sources of information, including patient/family interviews, review of medication lists/vials, or follow-up with the community pharmacy or family physician.

Canadian Patient Safety Institute and ISMP Canada (2017). Medication Reconciliation in Acute Care Getting Started Kit, version 4. 


Privacy

(1) The right to be free from intrusion and interruption. It is linked with other fundamental rights such as freedom and personal autonomy. In relation to information, privacy involves the right of individuals to determine when, how and to what extent they share information about themselves with others.

(2) Freedom from intrusion into the private life or affairs of an individual when that intrusion results from undue or illegal gathering and use of information about that individual.

(3) The right of individuals to live free of intrusive monitoring of their personal affairs by third parties not of their choosing.

(4) The claim of individuals, groups or institutions to determine for themselves when, how and to what extent information about them is communicated to others.

COACH


Privacy Breach

A confirmed unauthorized or illegal use or disclosure of personal or personal health information.

COACH


Provider Registry

Provider Registry / Registres des prestateurs

A system or a combination of systems where a health care provider's information (i.e. name, address, practice licenses, etc) is securely stored, maintained and made available to other systems and users.

Canada Health Infoway, EHRS Bueprint Version 2


Q

Quality

In health care, the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge.

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Query

A database search function that allows the user to search across multiple tables and extract data that meet predefined, desired parameters.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


R

Randomized controlled trial (RCT)

A medical research study in which subjects are randomly assigned to a treatment, no treatment, or placebo group. An RCT is usually blinded (i.e., neither the researcher nor the subject knows which intervention the subject received).

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Registry

A database and associated applications on a specified group of patients (often those with a certain disease or who have undergone a specific procedure), health professionals, organizations or even clinical trials. Key issues in registries are maintaining confidentiality, coverage of the target population and data quality.


Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM)

focuses on the delivery of health care to patients outside of conventional care settings (e.g., a patient's home), made possible by connecting the patient and a health care provider through technology. They work together as a care team to maintain and improve the patient's health, often in a coaching model. RPM also typically involves the electronic transmission of patient data (e.g., symptoms, vital signs, outcomes) from a remote home location to the provider, as well as the supporting services and processes required to conduct data review, interpretation and potential alteration of the patient's course of care


Renouvellements électroniques d’ordonnances

Demandes, amorcées par le patient, de renouvellement d’ordonnances de médicament envoyées à un professionnel de la santé réglementé


Robotic cart filling system

An automated dispensing device that uses bar coding to locate, obtain, package, label, and deliver medications for specific patients by filling unit-dose carts.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Root cause analysis (RCA)

An investigation technique that systematically seeks to understand the underlying (root) causes of an error by looking at all the systems involved.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


S

Security

The preservation of the confidentiality, integrity and availability of personal health information.

COACH


Security incident

Unauthorized access, use, disclosure, modification, or destruction of electronic protected health information (ePHI). 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Severity threshold

In clinical decision support systems, the minimum severity that a drug-related problem must achieve prior to being presented to the pharmacist.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Single Unit Packaging

A single unit package is one that contains one discrete pharmaceutical dosage form; i.e. one tablet, one 2 mL volume of liquid, one 2 g mass of ointment, etc. A single unit package is also a unit dose or single dose package if it contains the particular dose of the drug ordered for the patient.


Smart pump

A device that administers IV solutions and contains drug libraries and dosing parameters for commonly used medications.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Soft Stop

Soft stops are computer-based reminders. For example, if the BPMH is expected to be complete within six hours of admission, at three hours after admission a reminder could be sent to the person responsible for completing the BPMH to complete it.

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


Stakeholder

An individual or group with an interest in the success of an organization and its products. Thus, stakeholders could consist of the organization’s own members, senior authorities either within or outside the organization, suppliers, etc. Stakeholders are groups internal and external to the organization that affect the organization’s interests.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Structured Query Language (SQL)

A unique language that is used to perform actions on data within a database and is the standard query language in relational database management systems.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Sustainability

Described as “when new ways of working and improved outcomes become the norm.” Sustainability is achieved when processes have changed and benefits are realized and have even further evolved over time. Sustainability results when the change becomes an integrated or mainstream way of working rather than something “added on.”

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Symbologies

A standardized bar coding methodology that enables capturing product information contained in data printed in machine readable format and read using a bar code reader so that it can be immediately captured for data entry purposes by a pharmacist or by a healthcare provider administering the drug in a hospital, clinic, or nursing home.  


Synchronous communication

Two-way communication that occurs in real time (simultaneously). Examples include the telephone, instant messaging, videoconferencing, and text messages.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


System

An independent but interrelated group of parts working toward a common goal. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


T

Telecommunications

Electronic communications over distance.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Telehealth

Telehealth / Télésanté

Use of electronic information and telecommunication technologies to support long-distance clinical health care, patient professional health-related education, public health and administration.

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Telemedicine

The use of any electronic medium to mediate or augment clinical consultations. Telemedicine can be simultaneous (e.g. telephone, videoconference) or store and forward (e.g. an email with an attached image).


Telepharmacy

A subset of telehealth activities focused on medication management, including education, patient care, and administration.

 Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Traceability

Traceability is the ability to verify the history, location, or application of an item by means of documented recorded identification.


Transition

Transition is an internal, psychological re-orientation experienced by people coming to terms with a change. It is a process or inner experience not necessarily focused on outcome or results. It is timed differently than the external changes that caused it.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Transitions in care

A care transition describes the transfer of a patient between different settings and health care providers during the course of an acute or chronic illness.

Coleman, E.A. (2003) Falling through the cracks: challenges and opportunities for improving transitional care for persons with continuous complex care needs. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(4), 549–55.


U

Unintentional Discrepancy

A potential medication error in which the prescriber changed, added or omitted a medication the patient was taking prior to admission.

Canadian Patient Safety Institute and ISMP Canada (2017). Medication Reconciliation in Acute Care Getting Started Kit, version 4.


Usability

Quality attributed to an application system that describes its effectiveness and ease of use as determined by its users.

 

Canada Health Infoway, EHRS Blueprint Version 2


User

Person, device, program, or computer systems that uses a computer system for the purpose of data processing and information exchange.

 Canada Health Infoway, EHRS Blueprint Version 2


User interface

The mechanism used by the health care practitioner to access information in an information system.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


V

Vendor

A company or group of companies that provide software and/or software-related support services to clinicians in the province (e.g. EMR and PPMS providers).

 

Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information


Virtual Private Network

A network in which some of the parts are connected using the public Internet, but the data sent across the Internet is encrypted, so the entire network is 'virtually' private.

 

Canada Health Infoway, EHRS Blueprint Version 2


Visites électroniques

Interactions amorcées par le patient avec un professionnel de la santé réglementé qui lui offre des soins de santé à distance, de façon sûre et à l’ordinateur


Visualisation électronique des renseignements personnels sur la santé

permettront aux personnes de consulter en toute sécurité, en ligne ou à l’aide d’un appareil mobile, les renseignements personnels sur leur santé (et/ou, s’ils y sont autorisés, ceux d’un parent ou d’un ami) qui sont générés par un professionnel de la santé réglementé


W

Web 2.0

Interactive and social media applications that comprise the second generation of the Internet, which developed after the 2001 collapse of the dot.com bubble.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


What’s In It For Me (WIIFM)

A useful way to consider the different needs and attitudes of those who will be key stakeholders in an improvement initiative is to carry out a “what’s in it for me” analysis. WIIFM criteria could include: deeply held values and beliefs; working relationships; conditions of work: place, hours etc.; salary; job security; nature of work: tasks, responsibilities etc.; and power: status, position, identity. The more criteria that are negatively affected by the change, the greater the resistance to change. Changes that negatively interfere with a person’s power, status, position and identity will evoke the most emotion.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Workflow management

In pharmacy, the application of computer systems, software, bar code scanning, photography, and other automatic identification methods to streamline and systematize work processes, and to improve visibility of the current state of those processes for individual work items.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.



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