Global Glossary: Pharmacy Informatics


One of our goals of the project was to create a glossary. Throughout the e-Resource, terms have been "enabled". By choosing a highlighted term, a definition will appear. We welcome any suggestions you have for items to include. You may also comment below terms as they appear.

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C

Carousel cabinet

A type of automated dispensing cabinet in which medications are store in shelves that are attached to a carousel; the carousel can cycle through the shelving and deliver the appropriate shelve(s) to the user.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Case report/case series

Descriptive reports on the treatment of individual patients. Case reports/series do not use control groups.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Case-control study

A medical research study that evaluates patients with a specific condition and compares them with people who do not have the condition (controls).

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Change

Change involves a shift in action or thinking. It is about the events or circumstances that impact and affect the organization. These could include a new leader, changes in government policy, technology, stakeholder expectations, etc. Thus, change is typically outcome or results focused, in that organizational change is usually a solution to someone’s perception of a problem or opportunity.

 

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Checklist

A type of clinical decision tool: A form listing one or more items of patient data  to be collected before, during or after an encounter; can be paper or computer based.


CIHI

Canadian Institute for Health Information

Circle of Care

The persons participating in—and the activities related—to the provision of health care to the individual who is the subject of the personal health information and includes necessarily incidental activities such as laboratory work and professional consultation.

Personal Health Information Act, SNL 2008, c P-7.01. Consolidated Statutes of Newfoundland and Labrador

An informal designation representing the list of care providers who have a relationship with a patient.

COACH


Client Registry

A system which coordinates client identification across multiple systems by collecting and storing IDs and person-identifying demographic information from source system (tracks new persons and changes to exisitng persons).

Canada Health Infoway, EHR Bueprint Version 2, 2006

An electronic registry of demographic and administrative information related to individuals who have received health care in a province or territory that enables accurate identification of individuals in the EHR by linking person-specific information from separate clinical information sysems to the correct individual.

Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Healh Information


Clinical coding system (controlled vocabulary)

A limited list of preferred terms from which the user can draw one or more to express a concept such as patient data, a disease or drug name, etc. An alphanumeric code corresponding to the term is then stored by the computer. This approach makes it easier for a computer to analyse data than the use of free text words or phrases. Examples of clinical coding systems include SNOMED-CT (divergent codes used to capture patient data), MeSH (terms used to index biomedical literature) and ICD-10 (convergent codes for international comparisons). Clinical coding systems play a key role in epidemiological studies and health service research, from the use of MeSH terms to conduct literature searches for systematic reviews to numerous studies which use ICD codes to classify and compare diseases. To prevent information loss, it is vital that the terms and codes are never changed or dropped, only added to. Obsolete terms can be marked as such to deter inappropriate use. Continuing maintenance is needed to incorporate new terms and codes for new concepts and new synonyms as they arise.


Clinical data repository (CDR)

A large database that houses clinical data from multiple information systems within an organization and serves as a foundational component of electronic medical records.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Clinical Decision Support

Providing clinicians or patients with clinical knowledge and patient-related information, intelligently filtered or presented at appropriate times, to enhance patient care. Could range from simple facts to best practices for managing patients with specific disease states, new medical knowledge from clinical research and other types of information.

Dimitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 

 


Clinical Decision Support System

A system (computer or otherwise) intended to provider CDS to clinicians, caregivers and healthcare consumers. Automated CDSS are usually just-in-time, point-of-care messages in the form of an alert, reminder, recommendation, or informational notification regarding a patient. Automated CDS systems typically include a knowledge base (which contains stored facts and some method of algorithmic logic), and event monitor (to detect data entry or the storage of data from a laboratory or other system), and a communication system to the end user (unidirectional or bidirectional).

Dumitru, Doina. The Pharmacy Informatics Primer. Ist ed. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2009. 

Used when referring to a type of system that assists HCPs in making medical decisions. These types of systems typically require input of patient-specific clinical variables and as a result provide patient-specific recommendations.
 
Health Level Seven (from NAPRA)


Clinical decision tool

Any mechanical, paper or electronic aid that collects data from an individual patient to generate output that aids clinical decisions during the doctor-patient encounter. Examples include decision support systems, paper or computer reminders and checklists, which are potentially useful tools in public health informatics, as well as other branches of health informatics.

 

Liu JLY, Wyatt JC, Altman DG. Exploring the definition and scope of clinical decision tools: focus on the problem, not the solution. Working paper, Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Oxford University, 2002.


Clinical informatician

Clinically trained individuals whose expertise is applied at the intersection of information technology and health care, and whose focus is on successful adoption and use of health information technology. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Clinical informatics

The use of health informatics methods to aid management of patients, employing an interdisciplinary approach, including the clinical and information sciences. 

 

Shortliffe EH, Perreault LE, Wiederhold G, Fagan K. Glossary. In: Medical Informatics-- Computer Applications in Health Care and Biomedicine. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2001:749-820.


Clinical information

Organised patient data or clinical knowledge used to make clinical decisions (adapted from Shortliffe et al); may also include directory information. Many activities in public health and epidemiology (e.g. surveillance systems, cohort studies to assess the effects of a risk factor of disease and clinical trials to estimate efficacies of new treatments) involve the organization of such data (e.g. case report forms for individual patients) into useable information (e.g. incidence of notifiable cases of disease from surveillance programmes and summary evidence from cohort studies or clinical trials, expressed as odds ratios for certain harmful and beneficial outcomes). See also: information.

 

Shortliffe EH, Perreault LE, Wiederhold G, Fagan K. Glossary. In: Medical Informatics-- Computer Applications in Health Care and Biomedicine. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2001:749-820.


COACH

Canada's Health Informatics Association

Cohort study

A medical research study that evaluates, over a period of time, a large number of patients who have a specific condition or receive a particular treatment and compares them with another group that have all the baseline characteristics but not the condition being studied. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Communication protocol or standard

A set of rules that each networked device or computer follows so that data can be communicated between systems without error or communication-sharing conflicts over a computer network. Network connectivity and control hardware provide the physical connectivity and utilize network control logic to enforce sharing of the network medium in a reliable and safe manner.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Computer networking

Interchange or intercommunication for sharing data, applications, or computerized clinical services between computer systems. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Computerized patient record systems (CPRS)

Clinical enterprise systems comprising software applications that are used in acute patient care (hospital, surgery center, etc.) to manage clinical data in databases. The applications contain online functions that support inpatient workflow and online views of patient information.

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010.


Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE)

Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) / Systèmes informatisés d'entrée d'ordonnances (SIEO)

A Health IT that facilitates the process of electronic order entry. CPOE allows authorized healthcare providers to order medications, tests and procedures, and provide other instructions pertaining to the treatment of patients under their care. These systems generally integrate with pharmacy order entry/verification systems and Decision Support Systems (DSS). 

Paper to Electronic MedRec Implementation Toolkit, 2nd Edition


Confidentiality

The property that information is not made available, or disclosed, to unauthorized individuals, entities or processes.

COACH


Conformance

The process through which vendors demonstrate that their software conforms to specified requirements.

 

Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information (adapted)


Consent

Voluntary agreement by an individual or his or her legally authorized representative to allow the collection, use or disclosure of the individual's personal information.

COACH

Note: In this document, the phrase "informational consent" refers to consent to share or disclose information, in contradiction to "consent to treatment".

NAPRA


Consumer health informatics

(Solutions de santé grand public)

The use of health informatics methods to facilitate the study and development of paper and electronic systems which support public access to and the use of health and lifestyle information. For additional discussion on the scope of consumer health informatics, see Eysenbach. See also eHealth.

 

Eysenbach G. Consumer health informatics. BMJ 2000;320:1713-6.


Counting systems

Automated dispensing systems used to fill prescriptions, including countertop devices and stand-alone cabinets. 

 

Fox BI, Thrower MR and Felkey BG. Building core competencies in pharmacy informatics. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmacists Association, 2010


Culture

An organization’s culture is the set of values and beliefs that cause people to behave in certain ways.  

Canada Health Infoway. A Framework and Toolkit for Managing eHealth Change: People and Processes


Custodian

An organization or regulated health professional (e.g. pharmacist, pharmacy, physician) in the health system who receives and uses health information.

Custodians are responsible for ensuring that health information is collected, protected, used and disclosed in compliance with the Act.

Alberta Health Information Act